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Atefeh Vaezi, Mansoureh Sepehri Nia , Mahboobeh Shali,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Background: Informed consent is the cornerstone of medical ethics and is related to four out of ten articles of the patientchr('39')s legal charter, aimed at supporting the patient and clarifies ethical principles in the physician-patient relationship.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of receiving patients’ informed consent in the surgical wards in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences.
Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all patients, admitted to surgical wards of public hospitals in Zanjan, were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected after admission and before surgery, using a questionnaire designed according to library studies and considering Sheikh Taheri et al.’s study in two sections: general and specific. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results. The content validity method was used to determine the validity, and the reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by internal reliability using Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient.
Results: The number of patients was 400 (211 males and 189 females) and their mean age was 33.78. The results showed that 24% of the samples rated as “appropriate” the process of signing the consent form, and 19% of them considered the status of information submission appropriate. Three percent of the respondents regarded the comprehensibility of the questionnaire, and 12% considered the voluntary nature of obtaining the informed consent, as well as 19% found the relationship between the physician and the patient as appropriate. Other findings revealed that there was no significant relationship between sex and marital status with the sum of the questionnaire dimensions, but there was a significant relationship between the type of hospitalization and how to submit information consent and the process of signing the consent form, and also between the number of hospitalizations. Moreover, the type of job was found to be statistically significant with the form signature process variable.
Conclusion: This study found that there were some shortcomings in the process of obtaining a surgical informed consent. Therefore, considering the role of the patient in the process of obtaining informed consent, providing sufficient information on physician’s treatment, training physicians and providing the patient with the opportunity to choose the treatment method can be effective in improving the quality of obtaining an informed consent.
Hosein Masoumi Jahandizi, Masood Hejazi, Mohamad Saeid Ahmadi, Mohamad Masood Vakili,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Background: Identification of the factors that result in academic achievement and prevent academic failure is of extreme importance due to the effective role of nursing in the health and wellbeing of human beings.
Objectives: This study is done with regards to the important role of academic emotions in academic achievement and the double effect of academic engagement mediators and cognitive strategies in the process; Therefore, the focus of this investigation is the influential role of academic emotions in academic achievement of the nursing students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences through mediation of academic engagement and cognitive strategies.
Methods: This research is causal-comparative in nature, covering a statistical population of 178 male and female students of nursing in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, who were found qualified for this study. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for collection of data, which was then analyzed using SPSS24 and LISREL 8.8.
Results: The findings showed that academic engagement with a coefficient of 0.58 and cognitive strategies with a coefficient of 0.22 mediated academic achievement and academic emotion. Moreover, the adequacy of the model was above 0.90 through the Goodness-of-Fit Indices. Moreover, the adequacy of the model was proved through such Goodness-of-Fit Indices as the Chi-square test, which equaled 6.12, the six degrees of freedom (6DoF) and the 0.40 level of statistical significance (p).
Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that mediation of academic engagement and cognitive strategies will enhance effect of academic emotion in academic achievement and the variables have well proved their mediation role.
Mohammad Reza Babaei, Gasem Askarizadeh, Afsaneh Towhidi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Background: Thalassemia is one of the main chronic hereditary diseases characterized by severe symptoms of anemia. Also, it has negative effects on patients’ mental health. However, few researches have studied the different psychiatric aspects of this disease and the psychological and social needs of thalassemic patients.
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stress management and resilience training on psychological well-being of thalassemic patients in Kerman.
Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study using pre-test and post-test model with control group. A sample of 30 patients with thalassemia major, who referred to the Samen al-Hojaj Charity Foundation, was selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (each group included 15 patients). After completing the pre-test, the experimental group received 10 sessions of stress management training. The instrument of the study was Reef Psychological Well-being Questionnaire (RPWB). Data were analyzed by SPSS software using covariance analysis.
Results: The results indicated that resilience and stress management training have positive effects on psychological well-being and its subscales including self-acceptance, positive relationship with others, autonomy, personal development and purposeful life of thalassemia major patients (p<0.05), yet it is not effective on environmental control (p>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results, regarding the effectiveness of resilience and stress management on the psychological well-being of thalassemic patients, the present study could introduce effective solution for development of psychological well-being and improvement of overall mental health of patients with thalassemia major.
Azam Maleki, Sayeh Sadat Moosavi Sahebalzamani, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Mansoreh Sepehrinia,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (6-2019)

Background: Application of technology for education accounts for an important aspect of expansion of the information technology in the present century.
Objectives: This study aims to examine the degree of readiness of the faculty member of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences for e-Teaching.
Methods: This descriptive-cross-sectional study focused on the degree of readiness of 70 faculty member of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2014. It followed the simple randomized sampling method. The readiness of faculty member was assessed from five dimensions, including organizational support, perceived value, and time commitment, working skill, access to computer, internet and attitude towards e-Teaching, using a standard questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics indices, Pearson correlation coefficient and Logistic Regression Model at 95% confidence interval.
Results: The university faculty member were in adequate level of readiness in terms of organizational support (46.4%), positive attitude towards e-Teaching (49.3%); the skill of work with computer (49.3%), time commitment (44.9%), access to computer (49.3%) and positive perceived value (45.6%). The predictive variables of the university faculty member’ readiness were appropriate in terms of organizational support, access to computer and in term of, perceived value, age and gender of the university faculty member in term of, perceived time obligation, skill in work with computer and organizational support.
Conclusion: The results showed that readiness of the the faculty member of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences for e-Teaching was in a relatively appropriate level. Expanson of the technological infrastructure, holding empowerment workshops in order for improvement of the required skill and changing attitude of the university faculty member for e-Teaching are suggested

Mohammad Kazem Salamat, Masoud Hejazi, Siros Izadpanah, Zekrollah Morovati,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background: The characteristics of maternal schemas play an important role in children’s psychological health. Identifying the mechanism of the relationship between maternal schema and temperament problems can be the focus of therapeutic interventions.
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the ways to predict the relationship between early maladaptive schemas of mothers and childrenchr('39')s temperament problems with child adjustment as the mediator.
Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study based on correlation and path analyses. The sample consisted of 447 Zanjan preschool students who were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The data were collected using a questionnaire, and the parents of preschool children answered early maladaptive schemas Yang, adolescent child adjustment, and the Malahotra temperamental questionnaires. Pearsonchr('39')s correlation coefficient and path analysis were used to analyze the data.
Results: The results related to the preschool children and their mothers showed that the direct estimation coefficients of temperament problems based on components of maladaptive schemas were between-09 % to -20%. Besides, the direct coefficients of temperamental problems based on child adjustment were 46%. Overall, maternal maladaptive schemas accounted for 08% of the variance of adjustment and .33% of the variance in temperamental problems (P = 0.01).
Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that measuring and detecting maladaptive schema of mothers and identifying the type of maladaptive schema and curing them can lead to children adjustment and alleviate their temperamental problems.
Loghman Ebrahimi, Maryam Mohamadlou,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background: The World Health Organization has declared domestic violence against women as an important health priority.
Objectives: This study  aimed to identify the psychological, familial, and social consequences of domestic violence against women who referred to health centers in Zanjan province.
Methods: The present study was conducted using a qualitative approach and the grounded theory method. In addition, the purposeful sampling technique was performed among married women who were subjected to violence and referred to the health centers of Zanjan province in 2019. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed by thematic analysis.
Results: Domestic violence against women in different dimensions including emotional problems, biological problems and psychological trauma, emotional divorce, children’s problems, economic violence, verbal and physical violence, the lack of support, social rejection, and social incompatibility had devastating effects on the psychological, family, and social status of women.
Conclusion: Considering the destructive effects of domestic violence against women, taking serious measures is necessary regarding preventing and reducing these consequences through psychological interventions, educational programs, and counseling for families exposed to violence. Finally, pre-marital workshops should further be provided for young couples by relevant institutions.
Loghman Ebrahimi, Maryam Mohamadlou ,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background: The spread and growth of divorce is in critical level in the country and health of family, as the cornerstone of future health of society, is exposed to problems.
Objectives: This study tries to investigate the role of relationship beliefs and cognitive insight in quality of marital relationship of divorced women.
Methods: This is a descriptive-correlational study and the participants chosen based on convenience sampling included 80 divorced women who referred to the Social Emergency Center of the Welfare Organization of Zanjan in the final nine months of 2017. The instruments were the Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State (GRIMS), the Relationship Belief Inventory (RBI) of Epstein and Eidelson and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). To analyze the data, the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used.
Results: Results indicated negative and significant relation between relationship beliefs and cognitive insight and the quality of marital relationship of divorced women. The results of regression analysis also indicated that the components of relationship beliefs and cognitive insight both define 51% of the variance of the quality of marital relationship.
Conclusion: Results of this research showed importance of taking preventive and medication measures within framework of the educational and counseling programs with respect to the cognitive variables, especially relationship beliefs and cognitive insight.
Farnaz Farnam,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background: Managing sexual problems requires skill and enough time and precision. The patient’s chief complaint and data can alter through treatment processes.
Objectives: This case report is about the complexities and challenges of sexual dysfunctions diagnosis in females.
Methods: The present study reports different diagnoses of a woman referred to a sexual clinic.
Results: A 24 years old woman with a history of 4-year unconsummated marriage due to primary vaginismus referred to a sexologist. Previous visits by gynecologists, psychiatrists, and urologists showed no mental or medical problems in the couple. The woman reported that marriage had been done with the couple’s consent, she loved her husbands, and no conflict existed between the couple. After examining history and assessing sexual distress and function by means of FSDS-R and BISF questionnaires, routine treatment of vaginismus such as desensitization was initiated through vaginismus diagnosis. Some sessions later, woman’s narratives and examinations led to the diagnosis of sexual aversion (sexual aversion was one of the DSM-IV categories). Next interviews with the couple revealed that the woman did not suffer from any sexual dysfunction. The woman replaced her husband with her dead father and consequently was not able to have any sexual relationship with her, although she loved him.
Conclusion: In the mentioned case, 11 visits and more than 10 hours’ interview were done. One session with the husband alone, three sessions with the couple, and seven sessions with the wife were held. Three distinctive diagnoses were considered. Although enough time was devoted to introduction in the first session (60 minutes), correct diagnosis needed more visits. The process of the client’s trust to the therapist occurred gradually, and frequent interviews and separated man and woman visits were crucial for precise diagnosis
Loghman Ebrahimi, Yalda Rostami, Maryam Mohamadlou,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (11-2019)

Background: Due to the increasing number of divorces and their irreparable consequences, divorced women are at increasing risk of these problems.
Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the mediating role of internalizing problems on the relationship between emotional well-being and externalizing problems of divorced women in Zanjan.
Methods: The method in this research was descriptive correlation carried out through survey method. The statistical population was all divorced women in Zanjan that 200 people were selected through convenience sampling. Questionnaires of anxiety-depression-stress scale (DASS-21), emotional well-being (Keys and Magyar-Mae, 2003), and AGQ aggression as well as and Fisher divorce adjustment scale (1976) were applied to collect data. Structural equation modeling test and EMUs software were used to analyze the data.
Results: The research findings indicated that there is a significant relationship, which is in reverse and decreasing, between emotional well-being and externalizing problems (aggression) and internalizing problems. There is a significant relationship, which is direct and increasing, between emotional well-being and externalizing problems (post-divorce adjustment) and internalizing problems (depression, anxiety and stress) with externalizing (aggression) problems of divorced women. There is also a significant relationship between internalizing problems and externalizing problems (post-divorce adjustment) in reverse and decreasing, and the variable of internalizing problems is a mediating variable in the relationship between emotional well-being and externalizing problems.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, with increase in emotional well-being, internalizing and externalizing (aggression) problems decrease and post-divorce adjustment increases in women. Accordingly, responsible institutions are required to take the needed measures in the form of training workshops and psychological services to recover and improve emotional well-being among these people.
Ameneh Dashtestannejad, Akram Dehghani, Azam Salehi, Mohamad Masood Diarian,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2020)

Background: Sexual function is an important part of womenchr('39')s lives, and several factors play a role in its formation.
Objectives: The present study aimed to provide a structural model for predicting womenchr('39')s sexual function through sexual self-efficacy according to the mediator variable of conflict resolution techniques.
Methods: This descriptive correlational study was performed on 378 married women who referred to the cultural centers of Isfahan. Female sexual function index, Waziri and Lotfi sexual self-efficacy questionnaire, and the Strauss conflict resolution techniques scale were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and SEM (Structural Equation Model) method using SPSS-24 and AMOS-24 software.
Results: The data related to the fit of the model showed that the fit indices of the model are at the desired level; according to the mediator variable of conflict resolution techniques, the prediction model of female sexual function based on sexual resilience was approved. The results showed that sexual self-efficacy has a negative effect on sexual function (P>0.01; β= -0.30), and conflict resolution techniques also have a negative effect on sexual function (P>0.01; β= -0.43). The study confirmed the mediating role of conflict resolution techniques in the relationship between sexual self-efficacy and sexual function (P>0.01; β= -0.1).
Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that conflict resolution techniques are one of the basic marital skills to increase compatibility and improve sexual function in couples, as a mediator variable in relation to sexual self-efficacy and sexual function.
Said Ahmadi, Mojgan Alsadat Aghvamy, Mahnaz Afshingoo,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2020)

Background: Autism is a developmental disorder that impairs social relationships. Sleep disorders are one of the major problems of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Objectives: Concerning the need to investigate problems and impairments caused by this disease, the present study aimed at determining the effect of an eight-week endurance training program plus Q10 supplementation on sleep quality in children with ASD in 2017.
Methods: The present double-blind study was performed on three experimental groups. Group 1 performed eight-week endurance training on a one-mile distance as brisk walking. Group 2 received 100 mg Q10 supplements daily and Group 3 underwent a combination of both interventions. Pre- and post-tests were performed to determine the sleep habits of the study subjects using the childrenchr('39')s sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) by parents. Finally, the pre- and post-tests data were compared using the paired samples t-test.
Results: A significant difference was observed between the pre- and post-test results in the mean total and eight subscales scores in the endurance training plus Q10 supplementation group (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the pre- and post-test results in the sleep anxiety and sleep-disordered breathing subscales in the endurance training group and the sleep-disordered breathing subscale in the supplementation group.
Conclusion: According to the study results, it seems that the sleep of children with autism was improved by increased physical activity and Q10 supplementation.

Mahdiye Khodabandelo, Masoumeh Namadian,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2020)

Background: Social well-being is one of the main health dimensions that needs to be assessed.
Objectives: As there are few studies on the social well-being dimensions, the current study aimed to determine the social well-being of women of reproductive age and the related factors in Zanjan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 382 women of reproductive age (10-49 years), referred to the Health Centers of Zanjan, Iran. Samples were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method, according to the socioeconomic status. Data were collected, using the Keyes social well-being questionnaire as a tool with good validity and reliability. Data were analyzed through SPSS software using descriptive and analytical tests (Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson Correlation, and Multiple regressions). The statistical significance level was considered as p<0.05.
Result: In total, 382 women were assessed, and their social well-being total mean score was 64.7±6.5. The domains of Social contribution (16.8) and Social integration (10.8) had the highest and the lowest mean score, respectively. Those women and their husbands’ who had a higher educational level (p<0.001, P=0.03) and were employed (P=0.003, p=0,004) were more likely to have better social well-being. A significant association was found between the social well-being and socio-economic level (P<0.001). No significant association was found among age groups and marital status with social well-being. The educational level and sufficient income were found significant as independent variables associated with social well-being in the multiple linear Regression models.Conclusion: The majority of women had a moderate level of social well-being. When planning for improving social well-being, education and income should be considered. Further research to improve the dimensions of social well-being in women in reproductive age is recommended.
Sepideh Herizchi, Ghader Dargahi Abbasabad, Parvin Delnavaz, Hojjat Torkmandi, Sina Dezhampor, Bahman Roshenas, Rahele Modaber, Mohammad Abdi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2020)

Background: Substance abuse has a reciprocal association with the individualschr('39') general health; and its incidence among medical students is highly variable over time.
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the factors involved in the substance abuse and its association with medical studentschr('39') general health.
Methods: The present mixed-method study was conducted on the medical students of Azad University of Tabriz in 2018 with Stratified Random Sampling. Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and a researcher-made substance abuse questionnaire and then was analyzed through tests, chi-square, ANOVA, post hoc Howell Games and Multivariate regression models were using the SPSS16.
Results: 150 medical students with a mean age of 26.98±3.46 are participating in the present study. 17.3% of students were substance abusers. The highest rate of abuse was related to Ritalin. The mean scores of the general health of addicted and non-addicted students were 42.65±11.95 and 23.62±16.83 respectively, and it was statistically significant (p= 0.012). Academic pressure was the main reason for Substance Abuse. Anxiety and insomnia were the most essential predictors decreasing general health among students with substance abuse.
Conclusion: The prevalence of substance abuse among medical students was unexpected. Medical students are at risk of addiction due to the inadequate distribution of academic pressure and other predisposing factors. The implementation of practical strategies in training environments, families, and society is very important to prevent and improve the current status.
Vahideh Rashtchi, Saeed Ahmadi, Nasrin Hanifi, Ramazan Fallah,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background: The challenges of health systems emphasize the need for more motivated employees to perform better and more effectively. Therefore, pervasive attention to job satisfaction of these employees is a matter of course.
Objectives: The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting job satisfaction in emergency medical services (EMS) staff of Zanjan Province, Iran, in 2019.
Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study was performed on 170 EMS personnel working in the Disaster and Emergency Medical Management Center (DEMMC) of Zanjan Province. The stratified random sampling method was utilized to select the subjects. Job description index and GHQ-12 were administered as data collection instruments. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: In the present study, the work experience of 46.5% and 26% of the subjects was less than five and more than 10 years, respectively. The highest and lowest scores of job satisfaction belonged to coworkers and pay subscales, respectively (24.4±17 vs. 11.5±18.4). The overall job satisfaction score of the subjects was 19.7±18.2 out of 100. Also, a significant relationship was found between the level of education and overall satisfaction.
Conclusion: Considering the low level of job satisfaction in EMS staff, it seems that modifying the reward mechanisms in the prehospital emergency department and using performance improvement levers can enhance the motivation and improve the performance of staff. Besides, strive to promote social relations among coworkers as an effective element may help to enhance job satisfaction and the overall satisfaction of personnel.
Farzad Dehghanifar, Farshid Khosropour, Hassan Mohammad Tehrani,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background: Love trauma syndrome includes a set of symptoms manifesting after the end of an emotional relationship and negatively affecting performance in various areas.
Objectives: The current study aimed at determining the effect of object relations mediated by cognitive emotion regulation on the prediction of love trauma syndrome in female students.
Methods: The correlation-based structural equation modeling was employed as a research method. The statistical population included all female students in Kerman, Iran, in the academic year of 2019-20. A total of 243 subjects were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. Data collection instruments included the Ross love trauma inventory (LTI), the Bell object relations and reality inventory (BORRTI), and cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ). Data analysis was performed by the structural equation modeling using SPSS and LISREL software.
  • : The study findings indicated that object relations directly affect the cognitive regulation of negative emotion; on the other hand, cognitive emotion regulation plays a mediating role between object relations and love trauma syndrome. According to the findings of the structural equation modeling, the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.037, and the model had a good fit.
Conclusion: The present study findings indicated the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation between object relations and love trauma syndrome. Hence, the mentioned variables can be considered in interpersonal, pedagogical, family, and therapeutic relationships.
Seyedeh Nasim Mirbahari, Rahim Ahmadi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (8-2020)

Background: Due to the presence of the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 (ACE2) in the male and female reproductive systems, infertility and viral damage during pregnancy are possible, in addition to premature birth, abnormal birth, and even maternal death.
Objectives: This study aimed to review the effects of COVID-19 from fertilization until birth.
Methods: By searching relevant keywords, a total of 205 articles were retrieved, 62 of which were finally reviewed in this study. Also, the Fertility Society of Australia (FSA), European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) websites were checked to find reports on infertility management during the COVID-19 pandemic in other countries.
Results:: The coronavirus receptor (ACE2) is expressed in the tissues of the male and female reproductive systems, as well as various embryonic stages. The fetus is most likely to be infected by the virus at the time of birth. However, there are few reports of vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus before birth. Couples are generally suggested to freeze their embryos after the COVID-19 pandemic is eradicated.
Conclusion: Considering the presence of the new coronavirus receptors in the male and female reproductive systems, besides reports on the destructive effects of this virus on different parts of the male and female reproductive systems, COVID-19 can harm the next generation, as well as the current world population. Therefore, couples are advised to avoid pregnancy during the COVID-19 outbreak. In the case of pregnancy, they are asked to observe the health protocols as much as possible to prevent the spread of disease.

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